Beyond Blockchain - An Introduction to Tangle

Kumar Anirudha


What to expect from this session

  • Problems with current world
  • Bitcoin and Blockchain
  • Problems with Blockchain
  • What is Tangle
  • Blockchain vs Tangle
  • Use-cases and Implementations


  • Huge fees for money/asset transfer.
  • Delayed oversees transfer.
  • Controlled by any government or Institution.
  • Corrupt Humans. No Trust among peers.



  • Bitcoin for the first time established trust in a trustless system.
  • Blockchain paved the way to more distributed data systems.
  • Peer to peer networks gave control back to the people who earlier felt at mercy of the big organisations.
  • Internet faced a revolution unlike any other.
  • Everyone can now be rewarded for every little action they do. Incentives are the new have-to and not can do.

A Blockchain World

Consensys augur Golem Steemit Coindesk Cointelegraph OpenChain Ascribe Hyperledger Ethereum bigchainDb Ripple Stellar Multichain Applied Blockchain Infura Qtum Brave Paxos Ledger Nano Blockstack

Problems with Blockchain

  • Users vs Network
  • Scalability
  • Tax/ Miners
  • Always Online
  • High end hardware requirements

Solutions in Blockchain

  • Users vs Network - Solved by various consensus mechanisms
  • Scalability - Solved temporarily by lightning network, raiden network, plasma, sharding, etc.
  • Tax/ Miners - No solution
  • Always Online - No solution
  • High end hardware requirements - Light chains solve to some extent if mining is not involved.


Tangle It is a novel new distributed ledger architecture that is based on a DAG (Directed Acyclic Graph). One might refer to it as a "Blockchain without Blocks and the Chain" (semantically, it's not really a Blockchain).
IOTA Whitepaper
At its core, the Tangle still has the same underlying principles as a Blockchain: it's still a distributed database, it's still a P2P Network and it still relies on a consensus and validation mechanism.

Directed Acyclic Graph ( DAG )

In mathematics and computer science, a directed acyclic graph (DAG), is a finite directed graph with no directed cycles. Tangle initial

Adding a transaction

Tangle add a transaction

Another Transaction

Tangle Another Transaction

New Tangle State

Tangle New Tangle State

Confirmation Levels

Tangle Confirmation Levels

Propagation Delay

Tangle Propagation Delay

Double Spend

Tangle Double Spend

Double Spend Resolution

Tangle Double Spend Resolution

Offline Tangle

Tangle Offline Tangle

Scaling in Tangle

Tangle Scale

Blockchain vs Tangle

Blockchain Tangle
Linked list Graph
Transactions are grouped in blocks and blocks are validated. Transactions validate two other transaction.
Network requires certain fee for transaction No Transaction Fee
Sequential Consensus Parallel Consensus
Network gets slower as nodes increases. Network gets faster as nodes increases. Infinitely Scalable.
Always Onchain Offchain onchain anytime. Partioning.


Data Integrity Data Integrity
Data Integrity Data Integrity


IOTA Data MarketPlace Bosch XDK Smart Charging Green Protocol: Smart Cities
Car Black Box SatoshiPay SnapAsk IOTA Smart Phone
Netherlands Government Taiwan Government Riksbank E Health Fog Computing


Few key Take-Aways

  • We are already living in a world where blockchain is slowing sweeping into our daily lives slowly.
  • Blockchain has it's own flaws which Tangle overcomes.
  • Spectre, Hashgraph are also trying to do similar to what Tangle is doing.
  • IOTA establishes a perfect platform for machine economy to rise.

The End


Kumar Anirudha :
Twitter: @kranirudha
Github: @anistark