An Introduction to

Shared Security

in Decentralised Apps

Kumar Anirudha

Who am I

  • Working on blockchain since 2016.
  • Co-founded Blockchained India. Currently largest blockchain community in the country.
  • Founder, Acyclic Labs.
    • Blockchain Research and Development Studio.
    • Solutioning on FinTech, Supply Chain and other domains.
  • Currently, working with IOTA Foundation to build the next generation decentralised tech for developers.

What are Decentralised Apps

  • No Central Authority or Server
  • Distributed Database

Some Common Terms


Some Common Terms

Decentralised Networks

Some Common Terms


Some Common Terms

DAG (Directed Acyclic Graph)

Immense number of Decentralised Networks

Over 17,681 cryptos listed on coinmarketcap. Millions more unlisted.

Rise of Cross-Chain Applications

What are Cross-Chain Applications?

Any application that can operate across more than one network.




An Example

Problem with Cross-Chain Applications

  • Availability
  • Fee
  • Interoperability
  • Security

A Quick Comparision

Security in Decentralised Protocols

  • Shared Security: Shared security is a family of technologies that include optimistic rollups, zk-rollups, sharding, and Interchain Security.
  • Interchain Security: Interchain Security is the Cosmos specific category of Shared Security that uses IBC (Inter-Blockchain Communication).
  • Cross-Chain Validation: Cross Chain Validation is the specific IBC-level protocol that enables Interchain Security.
  • Cross Chain Collateralization
  • Shared Staking

Shared Security

State Channels

State channels utilize multisig contracts to enable participants to transact quickly and freely off-chain, then settle finality with Mainnet. This minimizes network congestion, fees, and delays. The two types of channels are currently state channels and payment channels.


A sidechain is an independent EVM-compatible blockchain which runs in parallel to Mainnet. These are compatible with Ethereum via two-way bridges, and run under their own chosen rules of consensus, and block parameters.


Rollups perform transaction execution outside layer 1 and then the data is posted to layer 1 where consensus is reached. As transaction data is included in layer 1 blocks, this allows rollups to be secured by native Ethereum security.

Types of Rollups

  • Optimistic rollups: assumes transactions are valid by default and only runs computation, via a fraud proof, in the event of a challenge.
  • Zero-knowledge rollups: runs computation off-chain and submits a validity proof to the chain.


Assembly is a permissionless protocol to build, connect and deploy smart contracts on a feeless multi-chain network.

The End


Kumar Anirudha :