the Web

Kumar Anirudha

Who am I

  • Working on blockchain since 2016.
  • Co-founded Blockchained India. Currently largest blockchain community in India.
  • Founder, Acyclic Labs. Startup focused on Research and Development on blockchain and web3.

Twitter : @kranirudha


Decentralised Network

Open transparent distributed database


  • Huge fees for money/asset transfer.
  • Delayed oversees transfer in age of globalisation.
  • A p2p network all can trust in.
  • Controlled by any government or Institution.
  • Corrupt Humans.



Smart Contracts

Shared/Distributed Database

Decentralised System

Genesis Block

Bitcoin Blockchain

Network Side

Types of Blockchain



Immense number of Decentralised Networks

Over 20k cryptos listed on coinmarketcap. Millions more unlisted.


Rise of Cross-Chain Applications

What are Cross-Chain Applications?

Any application that can operate across more than one network.



An Example

Problem with Cross-Chain Applications

  • Availability
  • Fee
  • Interoperability
  • Security

A Quick Comparision

Security in Decentralised Protocols

  • Shared Security: Shared security is a family of technologies that include optimistic rollups, zk-rollups, sharding, and Interchain Security.
  • Interchain Security: Interchain Security is the Cosmos specific category of Shared Security that uses IBC (Inter-Blockchain Communication).
  • Cross-Chain Validation: Cross Chain Validation is the specific IBC-level protocol that enables Interchain Security.
  • Cross Chain Collateralization
  • Shared Staking

Shared Security

State Channels

State channels utilize multisig contracts to enable participants to transact quickly and freely off-chain, then settle finality with Mainnet. This minimizes network congestion, fees, and delays. The two types of channels are currently state channels and payment channels.


A sidechain is an independent EVM-compatible blockchain which runs in parallel to Mainnet. These are compatible with Ethereum via two-way bridges, and run under their own chosen rules of consensus, and block parameters.


Rollups perform transaction execution outside layer 1 and then the data is posted to layer 1 where consensus is reached. As transaction data is included in layer 1 blocks, this allows rollups to be secured by native Ethereum security.

Types of Rollups

  • Optimistic rollups: assumes transactions are valid by default and only runs computation, via a fraud proof, in the event of a challenge.
  • Zero-knowledge rollups: runs computation off-chain and submits a validity proof to the chain.

Application Side



The End


Kumar Anirudha :